Otto Bismarck is considered one of the most influential and conflicting figures in German history: a diplomat and a reformer who united Germany with three bloody wars, and then actually alone headed the country for 20 years. Bismarck was a convinced monarchist, but the young emperor sent him to resign, not wanting to be in the shadow of a powerful chancellor. Despite the stormy political career, Otto did not neglect the carnal pleasures and managed to fall in love with Russian Princess. On the luxurious lifestyle of the commander - in the material "tape.ru" from the cycle about the rulers of all times and peoples.
Morphine and Region
"A certain amount of wine and tobacco is intended for each person for his life. I claim 100 thousand cigars and 5 thousand champagne bottles, "usually spoke German Chancellor Otto Bismarck. He argued that Cigars - and on the day he smoked up to 15 pieces - help him in work: soothe and keep his ardent temperament in the ultrasound. "If you smoke a cigar during negotiations - you feel that I am ready to go to mutual concessions. This is the work of diplomat, "the politician argued.
Bismarck was gourmet and did not hide that he loves to eat and drink. In 1879, his weight was 124 kilograms. The rapid weight gain led to serious illness. He suffered from rheumatism, phlebitis, disorders of digestion and insomnia caused by increasingness. Doctors put him on strict diets, but soon he was again taken for the old one.
So, after a lean soup, he managed to eat a fat trout, three large slices of incarnations, roast veal and drink it all excellent burgundy wine. In addition to the gluttony, Otto sat tightly on the morphine. Reset weight and start leading a healthy lifestyle He was able only in the 1880s. He made his new doctor - Ernst Schweninger. Surrounded by Chancellor, it was calculated that for all the time Diet Bismarck dropped about 320 kilograms in a total.
Between duel and drunken
The future ruler was born in the family of a rich Prussian landowner. He from childhood opposed subordination and discipline. During his studies at school, he had many conflicts with teachers, and in the first year of study at the University of Göttingen, it could be more common in the beer than at lectures.
Otto himself laughed that over the years of study at the university, he acquired an invaluable experience: learned to drink nights, and at the same time to get up cheerful
He took part in several dozen duel, during the first of them he got a scar on his cheek. Bismarck then said more than once that his opponent came dishonestly, causing a shock.
Young Otto defended monarchical views, although at that time young people had a fashionable liberalism. From every duel he went out the winner, conquering an indisputable authority among other students.
Everything that he was interested in, Bismarck was given to passion, be it hunting, horse riding or fencing. In a circle of friends and acquaintances, it was called "Mad Bismarck". He read a lot, not missing hunting seasons and boys, lost large sums into the card, changed the ladies of the heart, shot on targets, jumping on other people's grounds, did not give the passage to peasant girls ...
The energy beating over the edge demanded a much larger field of activity than could provide the life of an ordinary landlord. And Bismarck decided to go into a big policy. At that time, revolutionary moods reigned in Prussia. Shooking towards the party of conservatives, he began to build a political and diplomatic career.
Russian love and broken face
At the end of the 1850s, Bismarck was appointed Messenger Prussia in the Russian Empire. As he then recalled, he was welcome in St. Petersburg. For four years, he learned Russian, which then often used in the correspondence. Already being Chancellor of Germany, he wrote on official documents in Russian "forbidden", "carefully", "impossible." However, his loved ones in Russian became the word "nothing". Love him helped the case.
Bismarck hired a daisher, but seeing his horses, doubted whether they could deliver him to place on time. "Nothing," said the pump and rushed on the road. Otto worried and asked: "And you will not fall out of the sleigh?" The barbell again said: "Nothing."
But suddenly Sani overturned, and Bismarck flew into the snow, breaking his face. He was already swung at the rod with a steel cane, but he began to lake the snow with his hands to rain the blood from Otto's face, senoming: "Nothing, nothing!".
Subsequently, Bismarck ordered a ring from this cane with the inscription "Nothing!". Otto confessed that later, experiencing excitement and difficulties, he spoke himself in Russian: "Nothing!" - and became easier
Especially Bismarck liked Russian hunting. Subsequently, he gladly told his friends as a bear shot from fifty steps, and sent his sister to Prussia Bear Horbok.
However, with Russia, Bismarck connected not only the work, but also suddenly broken off the love of Russian princes. In 1862, a 47-year-old married diplomat met at the resort in Biarritz 22-year-old Katerina Orlov.
The wife of the Russian ambassador in Belgium Nikolai Orlova often spent time alone - a husband returned from the Crimean War was restored after heavily injured and could not accompany her on swims and walks. The situation was used by Prussian diplomat. Bismarck told his wife about this meeting, which by that time was already accustomed to her husband's incidence.
But the novel from the Russian princess ended pretty quickly. Bismarck and his beloved almost drowned into the sea, they saved the Lighthouse. Otto saw a bad sign in this and on the same day wrote a letter to his wife. Returning to Johanne, he went into politics with his head and after a while he became Chancellor. However, he felt the warm feelings for Katerina Orlova until the end of his life and kept her farewell gift in the box from under the cigar - olive branch.
Threats and cunning
In achieving the political goals, Bismarck did not ceremony: he could throw thunder and lightning, crush opponents in fierce debates. At the same time, if it was necessary, at the negotiations behaved, it was emphasized politely and courteous. Territorial disputes he preferred to solve power methods. To unite Germany, he did not see a different path except "iron and blood".
However, Otto was quite cunning. He provoked the war of Prussia with France, falsifying the Emskoy Depospek - a telegram sent through him Wilhelm I Napoleon III
Chancellor corrected the message in such a way that its content was offensive for the French emperor. After that, Bismarck published a document that was considered secret, in leading German media. France declared Prussia to war in which defeated and lost Alsace and Lorraine. Prussia has also received a contribution of five billion francs.
The harsh character of the chancellor manifested itself and at home - he put his interests above the related links. In 1881, his son Herbert decided to marry the divorced princess Elizabeth Tsu Carolat Baten. She professed Catholicism, and her numerous relatives were opponents of Bismarck. Bismarck forbade his son to go with her marriage, and acted as usual, rigidly. Initially, he deprived the son of the inheritance, and then threatened suicide. Herbert did not have anything, except to obey the will of the Father.
At the same time, Bismarck considered himself a senimental and dreamy man, believing that the artists depicting it on the portraits of the power ruler - the Iron Chancellor, make a mistake. Otto always enjoyed life: even becoming a chancellor, I got up at noon, and went to bed in the morning. He especially loved dogs, there were German dogs at home. The owner was so tied to his pets that fed them, throwing pieces of meat from the table right on the floor. Hiring servants, Otto gave preference to those who liked his dogs.
The fuel is spent
Bismarck was very fascinated by politics, he loved power. However, years later, it became him to be treated. In 1872, he complained in his surroundings: "My fuel is spent, I can no longer." In increasingly, he lealed into his estates and spent months away from the epicenter of political events. Behind this followed the resignation. The young emperor did not want to compete with a popular chancellor, fearing to stay in his shadow. Formally, going away from affairs, Bismarck continued to be quite actively involved in the political life of the country. In addition, he wrote a lot.
In 1894 his wife died. It strongly uttered a former policy. His health was rapidly deteriorating, and in 1898, at the age of 83, Otto Bismarck died. He premeditated his death and shortly before the death forbade her posthumous mask and photograph himself on her deathbed. However, the pictures of the late ex-chancellor were still published. Photographers for it sentenced to a few months in prison. Boroned Bismarck in Family estate in Friedrichsra, where he spent the last months of his life.
Otto von Bismarck is a statesman and politician who managed to have a great influence on European history. He entered the number of people who have formed the German Empire. Speaking as a conservative, the main task of politician saw the unity of native lands and the refusal of colonial policy.
Background Bismarck was Ambassador Prussia in Russia and supported links with local diplomats, which influenced its perception of the country and its position in the international arena. From 1862 to 1873, the politician held the post of Prime Minister Prussia, and then stood at the head of the German Empire. The first chancellor was a real idol for Adolf Hitler.
Childhood and youth
Otto Edward Leopold von Bismarck was born on April 1, 1815 in the town called Shenhausen, in Brandenburg. In those years, the city referred to the Prussian province of Saxony. The boy belonged to the old nobility, and his ancestors were famous politicians. Otto loved his father very much, who after serving in the army was in the rank of retired captain of Cavalry. Mother devoted all his time to raising children, but the son did not remember the Son's special tenderness.
The boy brought up with brothers and sisters. In total, 6 children were born in the family. Three brothers and sisters were killed in childhood. Otto was the 4th child. When he was marked for a year, the family moved to Porosania, in Konarzhevo, where the child's child's childhood passed. These owners of the father inherited from the cousin. Here the boy was born brother and sister Bernard and Malvin.
At 7, Otto was given to the Elite boarding school in Berlin. Then he became a gymnasium in Graze Closter. In 1832, the young man entered the University of Göttingen in Hanover, choosing jurisprudence, and a year later he returned to Berlin. In parallel with the receipt of education, Bismarck was engaged in diplomacy.
At first, he acted as an administrative worker, and then received a place in the appellate court of Potsdam. The measured activity did not impress the ambitious and active OTTO. He considered the discipline boring. In his youth heard a mischief, the university surrounded himself a reputation as a hot-tempered and ambiguous personality. The student often participated in duels and almost never lost his opponents.
Career and Military Service
In 1837, the young man went as a volunteer to serve in the Baifswald battalion. Already in 1839, when the mother died, together with his brother, Bismarck took part in managing the estates belonging to the family. He was 24 years old.
Insudacy and literacy of planning that Otto demonstrated, many of his acquaintances were surprised. Bismarck's background was given as an exclusive, stylish, but a hot-tempered landowner. Since 1846, Otto worked in the office, engaged in the management of the work of dam. He traveled a lot in Europe, independently forming political views.
Otto Bismarck von Bismarck dreamed of a political career, but it has evisted soon, because most of the acquaintances remembered the dubious reputation and the explosive character of a young man. In 1847, Bismarck's background became a deputy of the United Landtag of the Prussian Kingdom, and from that moment he was not stopped. Europe in these years experienced revolution.
Liberal and socialist associations fought for the rights and freedoms described in the Constitution. The newly made politician who preached conservative principles turned out to be an unexpected person in the state chaise. Supporters of the Prussian king celebrated his oratory and favorable glances. Protecting the rights of the monarchy, the background Bismarck was in opposition.
The statesman formed the Conservative Party and participated in the creation of the "Croyz-Zaytung" edition. Presenting a young nobility in parliament, Otto understood the absence of a compromise. He performed for a single parliament and subordination of his power.
In the 1850s, the official received a place in the Erfurt Parliament and opposed the Constitution and Policy, which could provoke a conflict with Austria. Background Bismarck anticipated the defeat of Prussia. The insight helped him get the place of the Minister in the Bundestag Frankfurt am Main. Despite the lack of diplomatic experience, Otto quickly gained the necessary skills and glory.
In the 1857th von Bismarck became the ambassador of Prussia in Russia. He held this position until 1862. Often visiting the country and extinguishing in St. Petersburg, he brought friendship with Vice Chancellor Alexander Gorchakov. His German considered his "godfather" in politics, as he partly adopted a diplomatic style from the Russian friend. Background Bismarck learned unfamiliar language, felt the mentality and nature of the nation.
One of his famous statements will be a warning that it is impossible to allow war between Germany and Russia, since it will have detrimental consequences for the Germans. The relationship between the background Bismarck and the monarchs of Russia was so close that the policy even offered a post at the court.
Career Otto von Bismarck was successfully developed, but her new stage began with the weighing on the throne of Wilhelm I in 1861. Prussia held a constitutional crisis provoked by disagreements between the king and Landtag. The parties could not agree on a military budget. Wilhelm needed support that I saw in the background of Bismarck. At that time he held the post of ambassador in France.
Disagreements between Wilhelm I and Liberals made Otto Bismarck von the weighty political figure. He was appointed prime minister and foreign minister for assistance in the reorganization of the army. The reform did not support the opposition, which was known about the ultra-conservative position of the Bismarck background. The confrontation between opponents ceased for 3 years due to the turbines arising in Poland. The man proposed support for the Polish king and became unwanted in Europe, but he won the confidence of Russia.
Then Otto von Bismarck took part in conflicts that worked out in Denmark. He was forced to resist national movements again. In the 1866th war began with Austria and division of state lands. In support of Prussia was Italy. Military success strengthened the position of Bismarck Background. Austria lost influence and no longer represented a threat.
In 1867, the Effords of the Politics were organized by the North-German Union. The Confederation combined the principality, duchy and kingdom. So the state actor became the first Chancellor of Germany, introduced the voting law of Reichstag and focused power in his hands. Background Bismarck held under the control of the foreign policy of the country and followed the internal situation in the empire, knowing what was happening in all the State Deposits.
Napoleon III, who ruled at this time, was concerned about the association of states and tried to stop him with the help of weapons. The Franco-Prussian War was won by Bismarck, and the king of France was captive. 1871 became the date of the foundation of the German Empire, the Second Reich, whose Kaiser was Wilhelm I.
From this point on, the Bismarck background held back internal and external threats from the Social Democrats, as well as the rulers of France and Austria, who feared the new state. His was called the Iron Chancellor, and the foreign policy conducted by the "Bismarck Union System." The statesman followed that in Europe there are no strong antigherman associations that can provoke the war. At the same time, he walked on any tricks to create a profitable external and social policy.
The German elite rarely understood the multi-stage strokes of Bismarck, so his figure annoyed the nobility. It required war to redistribute land. Otto von Bismarck opposed colonial politics, although the first subordinate land appeared during his board in Africa and the Pacific Ocean.
The new generation of statesmen sought power. They were not afraid of the unity of their country, but world domination. So, the 1888th became the "year of three emperors." Wilhelm I and his son Friedrich III died: the first from old age, and the second from the throat cancer. The country was headed by Wilhelm II. In his rule, Germany became a member of the First World War. This event turned out to be fatal for the state united by an iron chancellor.
In 1890, the background Bismarck resigned. He was 75 years old. By the beginning of the summer, France and Russia united with England against Germany.
Having become acquainted in 1844 in Konarzhevo with the Joanna Puttkamer, Otto Bismarck decided to associate his further biography with her. 3 years later, a wedding of young people took place. Personal life of spouses was happy. My wife supported Bismarck's background, was a very religious person. Otto became a good spouse, despite the relationship with Ekaterina Orlova-Truck, the wife of the Russian ambassador, and intrigues that allow themselves political figures.
Three children were born in the family: Maria, Herbert and William. Joanna died at the age of 70. Having mourning it, the background Bismarck erected a chapel, where her dust was buried. Later, the remains of the spouse were transferred in the mausoleum von Bismarck in Friedrichsruhe.
Otto Bismarck's background was a lot of hobbies. He loved the horse ride very much and collecting degrees. Being in Russia, politician was so fascinated by the Russian language, which did not lose interest to him and subsequently. The loved word of the man was "nothing" (in the meaning of "nothing terrible"). His state certificate mentioned in memoirs and memories of Russia.
Recent years, Bismarck's background went in prosperity. In Germany, they understood the role that politician played in the history of the country's formation. In 1871 he greeted the Earth in the Duchy of Launburg, and on the 70th anniversary - a large amount of money. Her former Chancellor sent to the redemption of the ancestors and the acquisition of the estate in Pomerania, where he lived as in a country residence. The balance of schoolchildren's assistance fund was founded.
After the resignation, Bismarck was received by the title of Duke of Launburg, although he did not use him for personal purposes. Former statesman lived near Hamburg. He printed in periodicals, criticizing the political system in the country. The man was not destined to see what was led by a new board. He died in 1898, at the 85th year of life. The causes of death were quite natural for the person of his age. Background Bismarck buried in Friedrichsruhe.
His name was repeatedly used in order to propaganda at the beginning of World War II. German political figures used quotes from the book "Big Policy of European Cabinets". Today she is on a par with the publication "Thoughts and Memories" is a literary monument of diplomatic skill Otto Bismarck. Portraits of the statesman and photos can be found on the Internet.
- "Conclude alliances with anyone, unleash any wars, but never touch the Russians."
- "When you want to fool the whole world - tell the truth"
- "In life - as in a chair at a dental doctor: all the time it seems that the main thing will be still, and it is already behind"
- "The attitude of the state to the teacher is a state policy, which indicates either the strength of the state or its weakness"
- "Never lie so much as during the war, after hunting to the election"
- "The world on the verge of war. What awaits Russia and Europe "
- "The second Reich. No need to fight with Russia "
- "Big Policy of European Cabinets"
- "Thoughts and memories"
- "Don't play with the Russians"
- Order of black eagle
- Red Eagle Order, Big Cross
- Order "Pour Le Mérite" with oak leaves
- Order "Pour Le Mérite Für Wissenschaften und Künste"
- Order of the house of Gogenzollerns, the Grand Commander
- Iron Cross 1st Class
- Iron Cross 2nd Class
- Oak leaves to the iron cross
- Order of the crown of the 1st grade
- Order Wilhelma
- Order of St. John Jerusalem
- Rescue medal
- Military Honor 1st Class
Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck is the most important German state and politician of the 19th century. His service had an important impact on the course of European history. It is considered the founder of the German Empire. For almost three decades, he formed Germany: from 1862 to 1873 as Prime Minister of Prussia, and from 1871 to 1890 as the first Chancellor of Germany.
Otto appeared on April 1, 1815 in the estate of Schönhausen, on the outskirts of Brandenburg, north of Magdeburg, which was in the Prussian province of Saxony. His race, starting from the 14th century, belonged to the noble class, and many ancestors occupied high state posts in the Kingdom of Prussia. Otto's father always remembered with love, considering him a modest man. In the youth of Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand served in the army and demobilized the rank of captain of Cavalry (Rothmist). His mother Louise Wilhelmina von Bismarck, nee Menken, belonged to the middle class, was under the strong influence of his father, was rather rational and had a strong character. Louise focused on the upbringing of sons, but Bismarck did not describe a special tenderness of his childhood memories of childhood, traditionally emanating from mothers.
The six children were born in marriage, three of his brothers and sisters died in childhood. They lived a relatively long life: the elder brother, born in 1810, Otto himself, which appeared on the fourth and sister of $ 1827. A year after birth, the family moves to the Prussian province of Pomerania, the place of Konarzhevo, where the first years of childhood of the future Chancellor passed. Here was a favorite sister of Malvina and Brother Bernard. Otto's father inherited Pomeran's possessions from his cousin in 1816 and moved to Konarzhevo. At that time, the estate was a modest building with a brick foundation and wooden walls. Information about the house has been preserved due to the drawings of the older brother, of which a simple two-story building with two short one-storey wings on both sides of the main entrance is clearly visible.
Childhood and youth
At the age of 7, Otto was sent to the elite private boarding school to Berlin, then he continued her education in Grauue Kloster gymnasium. At the age of seventeen 10 May 1832, he entered the law faculty of the University of Gottingen in Hannover where he spent a little more than a year. He took a leading place in the public life of students. From November 1833, he continued his studies at the University of Berlin. Education allowed him to do diplomacy, but at first he devoted a few months a purely administrative work, after which he was transferred to Potsdam to a judicial field in the Court of Appeal. In the public service, the young man worked for a long time, as it seemed unthinkable and routine observance of strict discipline for him. He worked in 1836 as a government clerk in Aachen, and next year in Potsdam. Then follows the year of service by a volunteer in the GRIFSVALD Rifle Battalion Guard. In 1839, he together with his brother took on the management of family estates in Pomerania after the death of the mother.
He returned to Konarzhevo at the age of 24. In 1846, I first leased the estate, and then sold the property inherited from his father, Philip's nephew in 1868. The property remained in the family background Bismarck until 1945. The last owners were the brothers Klaus and Philip, the sons of Gottfried von Bismarck.
In 1844, after the marriage of the sister, he went to live with his father in Shenhausen. Being a passionate hunter and a duelist, he acquires a "savage" reputation.
After the death of Father Otto, together with his brother, take an active part in the life of the district. In 1846, he began working in the office responsible for the work of the dam, which served as protection against the flooding of regions located on the Elbe. During these years, he traveled a lot in England, France and Switzerland. Inherited from mother views, his own wide range and critical attitude towards everything, they had it for free glances with an extremely right bias. He originally and actively defended the rights of the king and the Christian monarchy in the fight against liberalism. After the start of the revolution, Otto proposed to bring the peasants from Shenhausen to Berlin, to protect the king from the revolutionary movement. He did not take part in the meetings, but was actively engaged in the formation of the Union of the Conservative Party and was one of the founders of Kreuz-Zeetung, which since then has become a newspaper of the monarchical party in Prussia. In parliament, elected in early 1849, became one of the most sharp speakers from among the representatives of the young nobility. He occupied a prominent place in the discussions about the new Prussian Constitution, always defending the power of the king. His speeches distinguished the unique debate manner in combination with originality. Otto understood that party disputes were only a struggle for power between revolutionary forces and that there was no compromise between these principles. A clear position on the foreign policy of the Prussian government was also known, in which he actively opposed plans for the creation of the Union, forcing to obey the Unified Parliament. In 1850, he held a place in the Erfurt Parliament, where Ryano opposed the Constitution created by the Parliament, anticipating that such a government policy would lead to the fight against Austria, during which Prussia would be losing. Such a position of Bismarck prompted the king in 1851 to appoint it first by the main Prussian representative, and then Minister in Bundestag in Frankfurt am Main. It was a fairly bold appointment, because Bismarck had no experience of diplomatic work.
Here he is trying to achieve equal rights of Prussia with Austria, lobbies the recognition of the Bundestag and is a supporter of small German associations, without Austrian participation. In the eight years spent in Frankfurt, he began to make a great deal in politics, thanks to which became an indispensable diplomat. However, the period held by him in Frankfurt was associated with important changes in political views. In June 1863, Bismarck published a resolution regulating the freedom of the press and the Crown Prince publicly abandoned the policy of his father's ministers.
Bismarck in the Russian Empire
During the Crimean War, he advocated a union with Russia. Bismarck was appointed Ambassador Prussia in St. Petersburg, where he was located from 1859 to 1862. Here he studied the experience of Russian diplomacy. According to his own recognition, the head of the Russian Foreign Ministry of Gorchakov is a large connoisseur of diplomatic art. During the time, Bismarck in Russia, not only studied the language, but also developed relations with Alexander II and with a widowed empress - Prussian princess.
During the first two years, he influenced the Prussian government: the liberal ministers did not trust him with his opinion, and the regent was distinguished by the readiness of Bismarck to create an alliance with Italians. The alienation between the king of Wilhelm and the Liberal Party was opened by Otto's way to power. Albrecht von Rouon, who was appointed by the Military Minister in 1861, was his old friend, and thanks to him, Bismarck had the opportunity to track the state of affairs in Berlin. In the event of a crisis in 1862, due to the refusal of parliament, vote for the allocation of funds necessary for the reorganization of the army, it was summoned to Berlin. The king still could not decide to raise the role of Bismarck, but clearly understood that Otto was the only person who had enough courage and opportunities to fight the parliament.
After the death of Friedrich Wilhelm IV his place on the throne took Regency Wilhelm I Friedrich Ludwig. When Bismarck in 1862 left his post in the Russian Empire, the king offered him a position in the Russian service, but Bismarck refused.
In June 1862, he was appointed ambassador to Paris under Napoleon III. He studies in detail the school of French bonapartism. In September, the king, on the Council of the Ron, caused Bismarck to Berlin and appointed his prime minister and the Minister of Foreign Affairs.
The main responsibility of Bismarck as the minister was the support of the king in the reorganization of the army. Dissatisfaction caused by his appointment was serious. His reputation of the daily ultra-conservator, supported by his first performance regarding the confidence that the German issue cannot be resolved only by speeches and parliamentary decisions, but exclusively with blood and iron, strengthened the congestion of the opposition. There can be no doubt in his setting to bring to the end of a long struggle for the superiority of the dynasty of the Kurfurst dynasty of Gogenzollerne in front of Habsburgs. However, two unforeseen events completely changed the situation in Europe and forced to postpone the confrontation for three years. The first was an outbreak of an insurgency in Poland. Bismarck, heir to the old Prussian traditions, remembering the contribution of Poles in the case of the greatness of Prussia, offered his assistance to the king. By this he put himself in the opposition to Western Europe. As a political dividend there was gratitude to the king and the support of Russia. Even more serious were the difficulties arising in Denmark. Bismarck was again forced to confront national moods.
Union of Germany
The efforts of the political will of Bismarca by 1867 was founded by the North-German Union.
The North-German confederation includes:
- Kingdom Prussia,
- Kingdom of Saxony,
- Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin,
- Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz,
- Grand Duchy of Oldenburg,
- Great Duchy Saxen-Weimar Aisenach,
- Duchy Saxen Altenburg,
- Duchy Saxen-Coburg-Gota,
- Duchy Saxen-Mininggen,
- Duchy Braunschweig,
- Duchy Anhalt,
- Principality of Schwarzburg-Sondersgausen,
- Principality of Schwarzburg Rudolstadt,
- Principality of Riss Graz,
- Principality of Reiss Gera,
- Principality Lippe,
- Principality of Shaumburg-Lippe,
- Principality of Valdek,
- Cities: Hamburg, Lubeck and Bremen.
Bismarck founded the Union, introduced the direct authority of the Reichstag and the exclusive responsibility of the federal chancellor. He himself took the position of Chancellor on July 14, 1867. As Chancellor, he controlled the foreign policy of the country and was responsible for the entire internal policy of the Empire, and his influence was traced in each State Department.
Fighting the Roman Catholic Church
After uniting the country to the government, the question of the unification of faith has ever acutely faced. The core of the country, being a purely Protestant colliding with the religious confrontation of adherents of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1873, Bismarck was not only a big criticism, but was injured by aggressively tuned believers. It was no longer the first attempt. In 1866, shortly before the start of the war, Cohen was attacked on him, Native of Württemberg, who wanted to save Germany from the fratricide war.
The Catholic Centrist Party unites, attracting to know. However, the Chancellor signs May laws, using the numerical superiority of the National Liberal Party. Another fanatic, Podmaster Franz Kulmann, July 13, 1874 makes another attack on power. Long and hard work affects health policy. Several times Bismarck resigned. After retirement, he lived in Friedrichsruhe.
Personal life Chancellor
In 1844, in Konarzhevo Otto met with Prussian nobility Joanne von Puttkmer. On July 28, 1847, their wedding took place in the parish church not far from Reinfeld. Not demanding and deeply religious Joanna was a faithful companion who carried out substantial support throughout the career of her husband. Despite the difficult loss of the first beloved and intrigue with the wife of the Russian ambassador Orlova, his marriage turned out to be happy. Three children had a couple of children: Maria in 1848, Herbert in 1849 and William in 1852.
Joanna died on November 27, 1894 in the estate of Bismarcks at the age of 70. The spouse built a chapel in which she was buried. Later, her remains were moved to Bismarck's Mausoleum in Friedrichsruhe.
In 1871, the emperor presented him with a part of the duke of Launburg. To the seventieth, he was given a big amount of money, some of which went to the redemption of the estates of his ancestors in Schönhausen, part of the purchase of estates in Pomerania, which he from now used as a country residence, and the remaining funds were given to the creation of a fund to help schoolchildren.
In retirement, the emperor complained to him the title of Duke of Launburg, but he never used this title. Bismarck held the last years near Hamburg. He desperately criticized the government, sometimes in a conversation, sometimes from the pages of Hamburg publications. His eightieth anniversary in 1895 was celebrated with a big sweep. He died in Friedrichsruhe on July 31, 1898.
Otto Bismarck is one of the most famous 19th century politicians. He had a significant impact on political life in Europe, developed a security system. Played a key role in the unification of German peoples in a single national state. A variety of premiums and titles was awarded. Subsequently, historians and political figures will evaluate the second Reich in different ways, which created Otto Bismarck.
The biography of Chancellor is stillstumbling block
between representatives of various political flows. In this article we will get to know her closer.
Otto von Bismarck: a brief biography. Childhood
Otto was born on April 1, 1815 in Pomerania. Representatives of his family were junkers. These are the descendants of medieval knights who received land for the service of the king. Bismarcks had a small estate and occupied various military and civil posts in the Nomenclature of Prussia. By the standards of the German nobility of the 19th century, the family had quite modest resources.
The young Otto was given to the Plamana School, where students have hardered heavy exercise. Mother was a Yellow Catholic and wanted the Son to brush in the strict standards of conservatism. To the youthful age Otto turned into a gymnasium. There he has not proven himself as a diligent student. He could not boast and success in study. But at the same time I read a lot and interested in politics and history. He studied the features of the political structure of Russia and France. Even learned French. At the age of 15, Bismarck decides to associate itself with politics. But the mother, who was the head of the family, insists on learning in Gottingen. Right and jurisprudence were chosen as a direction. Young Otto should have become a diplomat of Prussia.
On the behavior of Bismarck in Hannover, where he was trained, legends go. He did not want to play right, so she preferred a rampant life. Like all elite youth, he often visited entertainment establishments and started a lot of friends among the nobles. It is at this time that the faster nature of the future chancellor is manifested. He often comes into clashes and disputes that prefers to solve a duel. According to the memoirs of university friends, only for several years of stay in Gottingen Otto participated in 27 duels. As a memory of a stormy youth for a lifetime, he remained a scar on his cheek after one of their such competitions.
Care from university
Luxurious life side by side with children of aristocrats and politicians was not affordable for relatively modest Bismarck family. And the constant participation in the polls caused problems with the law and leadership of the university. So, without having received a diploma, Otto went to Berlin, where he entered another university. Who graduated in a year. After that, I decided to follow the advice of the mother and become a diplomat. Each Worker at that time claimed personally the Minister of Foreign Affairs. Having studied the case of Bismarck and learning about his problems with the law in Hannover, he refused to a young graduate in his work.
After the wreck of hopes, becoming a diplomat Otto works in Anshhene, where he is engaged in small organizational issues. According to the memoirs of the Bismarck himself, the work did not require significant efforts from him, and he could devote himself to self-development and rest. But in a new place at the future Chancellor, problems arise with the law, so in a few years he is recorded in the army. Military career lasted long. A year later, the mother of Bismarck dies, and he is forced to return to Pomerania, where their generic estate is.
In Pomerania Otto faces a number of difficulties. This is a real test for him. Managing a large estate requires a lot of effort. So Bismarck has to abandon their student habits. Thanks to successful work, it significantly raises the status of the estate and increases its income. From the serene youth, he turns into a respected Junker. Nevertheless, quick-tempered character continues to remind himself. Neighbors nicknamed Otto "Fucky".
A few years later, Bizmarka Malvina's sister arrives from Berlin. With her, he is very close in due to their common interests and views on life. At about the same time, it becomes Yarym Lutheran and read the Bible every day. The engagement is engaged in the future chancellor with the Johann Puttkamer.
Start of a political path
In the 40s of the 19th century, a tough struggle for power between liberals and conservatives begins in Prussia. To remove the voltage Kaiser Friedrich Wilhelm convenes Landtag. Pass elections in local administrations. Otto decides to go to politics and without much effort becomes a deputy. From the first days in Landtag, Bismarck acquires fame. Newspapers write about him as a "mad junker from Pomerania." He is quite sharply expressed about liberals. The whole articles of defeat criticism of Georg Finke.
His speeches are quite expressive and inspiring, so Bismarck quickly becomes a significant figure in the village of conservatives.
Confrontation of liberals
At this time, a serious crisis is brewing in the country. In neighboring states there is a series of revolutions. Inspired by her liberals lead active propaganda among the workers and poor German population. Heads and strikes occur repeatedly. Against this background, food prices are constantly increasing, unemployment is growing. As a result, the social crisis leads to the revolution. It was organized by patriots together with liberals, demanding from the king of the adoption of the new Constitution and the unification of all German lands into one national state. Bismarck was very frightened by this revolution, he sends a letter to the king with a request to check the army campaign to Berlin. But Friedrich goes on concessions and partially agrees with the demanding of the rebels. As a result, it was possible to avoid bloodshed, and reforms were not as radical as in France or Austria.
In response to the victory of Liberals, Camarilla is created - the organization of conservative reactionaries. Bismarck immediately enters it and actively propaganda through the media. By agreement with the king in 1848, a military coup occurs, and the right-wing returns lost positions. But Friedrich is not in a hurry to emphasize their new allies, and Bismarck is actually removed from power.
Conflict with Austria
At this time, the German lands were strongly fragmented on large and small principalities, which somehow depended on Austria and Prussia. Two these states conducted a constant struggle for the right to be considered unifying the center of the German nation. By the end of the 40s, a serious conflict occurs due to the Principality of Erfurt. Relations deteriorated sharply, rumors rumored about possible mobilization. Bismarck takes an active part in solving the conflict, and he manages to insist on signing agreements with Austria in Olmyutsk, because, in his opinion, Prussia was not able to solve the conflict with the military way.
Bismarck believes that it is necessary to begin long-term preparations for the destruction of Austrian domination in the so-called German space.
For this, according to Otto, it is necessary to conclude an alliance with France and Russia. Therefore, with the beginning of the Crimean War, he actively agitates not to conflict on the side of Austria. His efforts bring fruit: mobilization is not carried out, and German lands adhere to neutrality. The king sees the perspective in the plans of the "Rainy Juncker" and sends it to the ambassador to France. After negotiations with Napoleon III, Bismarck suddenly respond from Paris and send to Russia.
Otto in Russia
Contemporaries claim that the formation of the personality of the Iron Chancellor had a huge impact of staying in Russia, and Otto Bismarck himself wrote about it. The biography of any diplomat includes the period of learning to the skill of negotiations. That particular Otto dedicated himself to St. Petersburg. In the capital, he spends a lot of time with Gorchakov, who was considered one of the most outstanding diplomats of his time. Bismarck was impressed by the Russian state and traditions. He liked the policy held by the emperor, so he carefully studied Russian history. Even began to learn Russian. A few years later he could have been free to talk to him. "The language gives me the opportunity to understand the very image of the thought and logic of the Russians," Bismarck wrote Otto. The biography of "Rainy" Student and Juncker brought bad fame to the diplomat and prevented successful activities in many countries, but not in Russia. This is another reason why Otto liked our country.
In it, he saw an example for the development of the German state, since Russian managed to unite the lands with an ethnically identical population, which was a long-standing dream of the Germans. In addition to diplomatic contacts, Bismarck makes many personal connections.
But the quotes of Bismarck about Russia cannot be called flattering: "Never believe Russian, for the Russians do not even believe themselves"; "Russia is dangerous than blameing his needs."
Gorchakov taught OTTO the basics of aggressive foreign policy, which was very necessary Prussia. After the death of the king "Fucking Juncker" send to Paris as a diplomat. Before him, it is a serious task to prevent the restoration of the long-standing union of France and England. The new government in Paris, created after the next revolution, treated negatively to the Mary of the Conservator from Prussia.
But Bismarck managed to convince the French in the need for mutual cooperation with the Russian Empire and German lands. In his team, the ambassador selected only proven people. The assistants were selected candidates, then they considered Otto Bismarck himself. A brief biography of applicants was compiled by the King's secret police.
Successful work in establishing international relations allowed Bismarck to become Prime Minister of Prussia. In this position he won the real love of the people. Weekly, the first stripes of German newspapers decorated Otto Bismarck. Quotes Policies became popular far abroad. Such fame in the press is due to the love of the Prime Minister to populist statements. For example, words: "Great time issues are solved not by the speeches and resolutions of the majority, but iron and blood!" Until now, used on a par with similar statements by the rulers of ancient Rome. One of the most famous statements from Otto von Bismarck: "Stupidity - the gift of God, but should not be abused."
Territorial expansion of Prussia
Prussia has long delivered the goal of the union of all German lands to one state. For this, preparation was carried out not only in the foreign policy aspect, but also in the field of propaganda. The main rival in leadership and patronage over the German world was Austria. In 1866, the attitude with Dania sharply agreed. Part of the kingdom occupied ethnic Germans. Under the pressure of the nationalist part of the public, they began to demand the right to self-determination. At this time, Chancellor Otto Bismarck launched full support of the king and received extended rights. The war began with Denmark. Prussia's troops without special problems took the territory of Holstein and shared it with Austria.
Because of these lands, a new conflict arose with a neighbor. Habsburgs who were squeezed in Austria lost their positions in Europe after a series of revolutions and coups, which overthrew the representatives of the dynasty in other countries. 2 years after the Danish War, the female between Austria and Prussia grew in geometric progression. First, trading blockades and political pressure began. But very soon it became clear that it would not be possible to avoid direct military collision. Both countries have begun to mobilize the population. A key role in conflict played Otto Bismarck. Briefly presenting its goals to the king, he immediately went to Italy to enlist her support. The Italians themselves also had an attraction to Austria, seeking to master Venice. In the 1866th war began. Prussian troops managed to quickly capture part of the territories and force the Habsburgs to sign a peace treaty on favorable conditions for themselves.
Union of land
Now all the ways to unite the German lands were open. Prussia took a course on the creation of the North German Union, the Constitution for which he wrote Otto Bismarck himself. Chancellor quotes about the unity of the German people were popular in the north of France. Strengthening the influence of Prussia strongly worried the French. The Russian Empire also began to wait for Otto, which will take Otto Bismarck, a brief biography of which is described in the article. The history of Russian-Prussian relations during the reign of the Iron Chancellor is very indicative. Politician managed to assure Alexander II in intentions to cooperate with the empire and further.
But the French failed in the same thing. As a result, the next war began. A few years before that, an army reform was held in Prussia, as a result of which a regular army was created.
Military spending also increased. Thanks to this and successful actions of German generals, France suffered a number of major lesions. Napoleon III was captive. Paris was forced to go to the agreement, losing a number of territories.
On the wave of triumph, the second Reich is proclaimed, Wilhelm becomes the emperor, and his trustee - Otto Bismarck. Quotes of Roman commander at the coronation gave Chancellor another nickname - "triumphator", since then it was often portrayed on a Roman chariot and with a wreath on her head.
Permanent wars and internal political disassembly seriously handled the health policy. He went on vacation several times, but was forced to return because of the new crisis. Even after 65, he continued to take an active part in all political processes of the country. No meeting of Landstag was held if Otto Bismarck was present on it. Interesting facts about the life of the Chancellor are described slightly below.
For 40 years in politics, he has achieved tremendous success. Prussia has expanded its territory and was able to master the superiority in the German space. Contacts were established with the Russian Empire and France. All these achievements would be impossible without such a figure as Otto Bismarck. The photo of the Chancellor in the profile and in the fighting helmet became a kind of symbol of his inexperienced rigid outdoor and domestic politics.
Disputes around this person are still being conducted. But in Germany, each person knows who was Otto von Bismarck - Iron Chancellor. Why it was so nicknamed, there is no consensus. Whether due to a hot-tempered nature, whether due to mercilessness to enemies. Anyway, he had a huge impact on world politics.
- His morning Bismarck began with exercise and prayer.
- During his stay in Russia, Otto learned to speak Russian.
- In St. Petersburg, Bismarck was invited to participate in royal fun. This is a hunt for bears in the forests. The German even managed to kill several animals. But during the next routing, the squad was lost, and the diplomat received a serious frostbite of the legs. Doctors referred amputation, but everything cost.
- In the youth, Bismarck was an avid deuel. He took part in 27 duels and at one of them got a scar on his face.
- Once Otto, the Bismarck background asked how he chose a profession. He replied: "My nature itself was destined to become a diplomat: I was born on April 1st."
Iron Chancellor! It was exactly that was the name of the Bismarca background in the years of his actual rule. We would like just a minister of foreign affairs (the equivalent of the Chancellor in the Russian Empire) can lead the country with an absolute monarchy for almost 25 years. For example, everyone knows Bismarck, but no one knows Monarchs under which he consisted in his position? Tell me!
Otto von Bismarck during the years of "Board"
Otto was born in the family of a typical small Prussian nobleman. Mother, Wilhelmina Menken was 18 years old younger than her husband, Friedrich von Bismarka. The Father was a real Prussian servant, so Otto was brought up in Spartan conditions and it hardered him. In the age of 12, he went to study In Berlin, there I changed 3 gymnasiums and finally entered the University of Berlin, at the Faculty of Philosophy, the Faculty of Philosophy. The time of study was distinguished by a violence, often hesitated and did not rarely triggered a matter of duel ...
Young Bismarck in 1836.
The first job of Bismarck received in the border city of Aachen, who crossed Prussia recently and was very franc. Particularly broke out the interethnic conflict, which Bismarck rapidly, signing different papers and documents. The work was boring, but not heavy. But she did not give anything to the dusty bismarck Pleasure.
Father's death and politics
At the same time, the father of Bismarca die and he is inherited by his estate. When Bismarck came to his father's house, he was disappointed. He was ruined and here it was useful to put everything in their place. For a year he was able to turn his farm in the most profitable In the district, which deserves respect for his neighbors and acquaintances. After he comes to the local Landtag (Council) and begins his political career. He scolded Liberals in his speeches and urged the spirit of conservatism in Prussia. It is rapidly gaining popularity and already in 1849 Aged 34 years old, enters into the lower chamber of the German deputies. It continues to promote his conservative line, but almost every debate he lost. In no less the conservative line was the line of Prussian monarchy and therefore in 1859 Bismarck occupies a high post of ambassador in Russia and stays in St. Petersburg to 1862.
Bismarck and his wife.
Bismarck has repeatedly met with the Austrian ambassadors and was not afraid to hold and rude and directly show that the days of the German influence of Austria were considered and Prussia is a new leader of all Germans. So, seeking to show your superiority, Prussian and Austrian politicians had a unknown rule-tube during negotiations Only Austrians could smoke. Bismarck without any shame violated this rule regularly ...
Map of Austria and the North German Union in 1866.
"Iron and blood"
The winged phrase expressed by Bismarck during his speech about the combination of Germany. Zelezo means weapons, and the blood losses. I myself so Bismarck and united Germany. In politics, Chancellor heard a bastard and this is why. The first war for united was Prussian-Austrian-Danish War . Issmark, a talented policy, I managed to increasing the Austrians to the side of Prussia. So Prussia and Austria entered into the union and in 1864 declared war on the territory of Halstein (it was from there Peter III). WHERE NATURAL PRUSKAKI WON AND LONGER IN PRESS. To start at least with the fact that Denmark also fought by Napoleonic Muskets, when as Prussians have already mastered the cutting barrel. But not long, the music played ... Already 2 years later, in 1866, Bismarck and several allied duchy cities declare War of Austria. So here. Gromadic Austria showed itself no better than a tiny Denmark and also for half a year capitulated. Regulation rose by a third and many large cities of Germany, for example, Frankfurt, which we consider the originally German, they were conquered by Bismarck. Only Alsace and Lorraine remained the Bismarka plan. It was the tiny territories to whom the Great Rhine passes on the borders of these territories, which makes the transition of troops and it would be more convenient if the rivers were inside Germany, and not on the border. The entire Metallurgical Industry of France was literally in these provinces. In addition, in France, Napoleon I, Napoleon III. Lowned, that the star of the Great Uncle favors him, he was the most courageous politician of Europe of that time, and in vain ... So he ignored the Prussian ambassadors, which became Casus Beli (from Lat. The reason for the war) for Prussia. Here is the rules of Prussia? Starting with Friedrich Wilhelm III (Sovperenik Napoleon I), Prussia ruled the weak monarchs. After the Friedrich Wilhelm III was His Breakfit Son Romantic, Friedrich Wilhelm IV.Pot Wilhelm I, which policy is not I was interested, which was just the same and gave the Bismarck of the Board of the Board, from which only the last emperor of Germany was able to get rid of, Wilhelm II.For, no one tried to take away the power from Bismarca, he satisfied all Understand yourself. At that time in Prussia Rules King Wilhelm I. In response to the complaint of Prussian ambassadors, he wrote Napoleon III letter, with a request to take ambassadors. Bismarck seized this letter, rewrote in an offensive form for the emperor French and published in the newspaper. Napoleon III, just looking for at least an imaginary occasion for the war found him and in 1870 announced the war of Prussia ...
Emperor Napoleon III
Officially, France fought the year, but in fact, Napoleon III renounced half a year after the sedan disaster, and the remaining half of the year Prussia was departed by Paris. After half of the siege, Prussia went to the city and in Versaille Wilhelm I was crown by the emperor of the German Empire, which was humiliating for the French . Therefore, France is in one row with Denmark and Austria.
After the death of Wilhelm I and his son Friedrich III, the first active Prussian monarch entered the throne over the past 70 years old Wilhelm II.Vilgelm was an opponent of the Russian-Prussian Union, for it believed that such an alliance puts Prussa in a vassal position before Russia and wanted to look for allies Among the equal, which became Italy and Austria. Austria, remembering the old resentment, demanded the resignation of the Bismarck and in 1890 he was set aside from the post of Reichskanzler of the German Empire.
Caricature depicting the Bismarck, which comes from the Prussia ship. The price of him is silently observed Wilhelm II.
Bismarck retired to his estate, where he lived until 1898 and never participated in politics ...
Author: Vitaly ornich.
Note @ Cat.cat: This is a very long and serious article.
PZ.38 tanks (T)
Tanks. It seems to us that we know everything about them. It is them that the majority of literature are dedicated to them, they are interested in readers, creators of computer games, even, in many ways, films. Many people can remember the thickness of the booking of a tank, even if they wake them up among the nights. Many devoted a lot of their time compared to tanks among themselves. However, there are several very important things in comparison of the characteristics of tanks. This is the use of these machines as part of the divisions, the role and purpose of them on the battlefield and in the operation, development trends and the vision of the tank by command, in general, the study of the characteristics is lost in the whole. So let's look at it! This article will consider the history of the tank divisions of the Tank Division of Germany, the compositions and the number of tank parts, important changes and the opinion of the German officers about what is happening. I will not consider the technical characteristics of the tanks, they are well known without me. I will try to tell what tanks were in units at different points in time, as the replacement of old models was replaced on more powerful, how many tanks were the norm in the divisions, where there was a place for what models and what problems were met on their way.
Let's start with pre-war time and see how the tank divisions of German tank divisions developed. The further we will go, the more details I will tell. As is known, after defeat in the First World War, restrictions were imposed on Germany. They concerned and tanks. This led to the fact that the Germans could not fully engage in this type of weapons for quite a long time, and they had to urged the missed. On the other hand, the Germans have developed an important idea that tanks are used not as a means of support for infantry gradually in each division, but are concentrated in special independent moving connections to strike in depth - tank divisions. And immediately in these divisions, in addition to tanks, infantry, sacre, intelligence and artillery units appeared. With all the power of tanks by themselves, they can only perform limited tasks. But it is not enough to create a competent concept and staff of the unit, you need to equip some of these units. Especially since at first the Germans wanted to have in the composition of the tank division almost nine tank battalions! From this idea they quickly abandoned, cutting a sturgeon at first up to six, and then up to four battalions - two shelf two battalions of tanks.
These battalions were equipped exclusively in one type of tank: pz.i, which had pure machine-gun weapons - two machine guns MG 13 with shopping nutrition, and booking from bullets and fragments of shells. Even before the construction of the construction of tank units, the Germans conducted the development of more powerful tanks - a more severe model with a 75 mm tool and light - with a 37-mm gun. But the industry for which the mass production of tanks was the task of a new and complex, could not quickly ensure the development of a successful model and the massive issue. A certain "transitional" period, development and verification of various solutions, numerous tests, the restructuring of the industry for the mass release of high-graded caterpillar armored vehicles. In the meantime, these successful models are developed and implemented, tank units will be equipped with a light machine-gun tank, which is easier to develop and produce, and which then can be replaced by more powerful machines.
If "a single" made a photo for social networks, most likely it would look like something like that
Moreover, it is impossible to say that in "units" seen only flaws. The Germans were not sure that they needed all the tanks to equip tools. It was expressed that since one triper with a 37-mm gun stands like three machine gun tanks, it is more profitable to have three machine gun tanks. Shard shells for 37-mm (and 20-mm) tank guns then did not yet have a machine guns, but three units are already six, and in the fight against the infantry goals they are more profitable. At the same time, three tanks require three hits from the anti-tank gun, while one more powerful tank (with the same booking) can be contrary to one. Of particular powerful armor, this "powerful" tank was not initially expected, since the extended bridge park limited the mass of the machine 18 tons. Therefore, at first it was assumed that part of the tanks should be machine-gun, and some are cannon-machine guns to deal with armored vehicles. Support for all these machines should have special tanks with 75-mm guns having fragantive fugasal and smoke shells. The fact that after a while, in general, all tanks of the tank regiment will be armed with such instruments, the Germans could hardly and threaten. On the other hand, concern about collisions with the tanks of the enemy forced to think about the saturation of the divisions of tanks with 37-mm, or at least 20-mm cannons.
At the same time, there was a discussion of tank bookings. Initially accepted by the Germans of 15 mm, as protection against rifle bullets and fragments of artillery shells, were found not enough in 1936. The Germans have the greatest concern about the automatic 20-mm guns. It is such instruments that, according to the Germans, can rebuild the actions of tanks with 15 mm armor, just as a machine gun makes the infantry. And it is from such means to be protected by a new German tank. True, it is still necessary to create, but when we create, it will have to have armor 30 mm. Such protection, according to the Germans, removes the problem of large-caliber machine guns and 20 mm automatic guns. Even the French 25-mm gun, about the protection of which was also worried, it is hardly able to hit such a tank from a distance of 500 m. At least, the Germans thought so. More powerful semi-automatic guns, for example, 37 mm and 47-mm, leading the shooting by single shots, do not pose such a threat simply by virtue of low rapidity. How many tanks will have time to deal with, but they will not be able to stop the massive tank attack.
Meanwhile, there was a development of new models. Each technical solution was checked, an experienced series of 10 - 15 cars was manufactured, comprehensive tests were carried out, changes were made, then the following experienced series was released. All this took a lot of time, but the Germans very much wanted to first work out the most appropriate design, and then just start the release. In something they succeeded, there is no such thing. I will not consider in detail all the technical features of each model, these descriptions in different books more than enough. Rather, I will explain how much and what tanks should have been in different periods in the tank division, as some tanks replaced others, and that the Germans thought about this.
Pz.ii does not affect his kind or sizes, but under the fire of his guns, it is unlikely that someone wants to be
Since the end of the 37th year, pz.II tanks with a 20-mm can be received in the division in decent quantities. This made it possible to replace part of one. According to state of October 37, there were four platforms and a platoon of management. In the first three platforms there were four units and one twice. In the fourth platoon, five bobs were immediately. In the easy company "A", the former friend of "strengthening", there were four platforms. Two are the same as in the usual company, that is, four units and one twice, and two platforms are more interesting: one is one of three triples (pz.iii), and one from three fours (pz.IV). Accordingly, units were armed with two machine guns, twos - 20 mm gun and machine gun, three - 37-mm gun and two - three machine guns, four - 75 mm gun and one - two machine guns. 20-mm and 37-mm guns had only armor-piercing shells. The tank battalion consisted of three light mouth, one light company "A", and a platoon of intelligence (two units, two twos and commander tank). The regiment consisted of two battalions and also had a platoon of intelligence. In the division of such regiments there were two.
In the future, there was an increase in the amount of cannon tanks. In October 1938, in the company "A" instead of a few in the first two platforms, two, and the number of fours rose to five. At the beginning of the 1939, the twists were added to ordinary light rots. Now in the light company there were three platforms, each two units and three two, and the fourth platoon completely out of the twists. Again, the company "Street" (company "A") was changed. Now it has already six fours, three three and a platoon of units. She also changed the name, becoming a "medium tank mouth."
The beginning of World War II German tank forces should have found about the described form. However, on mobilization standards in tank battalions, the number of mouth has reduced - now the norm has become two lungs and one average company per battalion. The main tanks were pz.i and pz.ii, pz.iii tanks were literally read units. In the fifth tank division there were three such tanks, and in the fourth tank division of tanks with 37-mm cannons was not at all! Pz.IV with 75-mm cannons were also in the minority. Most tank regiments had 6 - 9 fours and three troops. The 1st tank division was highlighted, which had 26 triples and as much as 48 fours. She was equipped with the new state of the autumn of the 39th year.
It is especially worth noting that in September 39 years, tank shelves were very different, which received Czech tanks. If later such shelves will be considered "weakened", since Czech tanks were weaker than the German, in the 39th year it was the opposite. PZ.35 and PZ.38 had a 37-mm gun, and divisions equipped with such machines, had many tens of them, or even more hundreds. The 11th tank regiment, which became the basis of the 6th Tank Division, received 45 bodies, 75 Czech tanks and 27 fours. For comparison, one of two regiments of the 3rd tank division received 59 units, 79 twists, 3 troops and 9 fours. Accordingly, there were 150 tanks in the shelf (and 8 more communities), and in the division - 302 (and 16 more commander). Also, the Division was "training" tank battalion.
Early models tank PZ.III
For the campaign of May 40, a huge number of changes occurred. First, the production of "full-fledged" tanks finally managed to more or less, and secondly, for 20mm and 37-mm cannons appeared fragmentary shells. Now Trok in the divisions were no longer three pieces on the regiment, but at 20 - 30, but in total to the division, respectively, 40 - 60. Four on the regiment accounted for 12-20. In a tank shelf, for example, the fourth tank division was 66 units , 55 twists, 20 triples and 12 fours, just 153 tanks (and 5 commander). In the more well-equipped "full-fledged" tanks, the 2nd TD regiment was 23 units, 60 bodies, 29 triples and 16 fours, only 128 tanks (and 8 communities). Total in the 4th TD was 304 tanks (and 10 commander), in the 2nd - 250 (and 16 commander).
Of course, adding new tanks affected the organization. The states of the beginning of the 40th year meant the presence of triples already in ordinary light rates. Easy company consisted of four platforms and a platoon of control. The first two platforms had three twos and two units each, two more platforms consisted of each of the three triples. The average company has changed. Now it was three platforms - "Easy" platoon of five bobs, and two platforms of the fours: four and three cars.
The French campaign, unlike Polish, lasted longer and passed with heavy battles, including with a large number of tank fighting. This made it possible to get a lot of experience. In the reports on the results of the campaign, the Germans really liked the fragmentation shells of their guns, and even 20-mm. There was a high moral and slaughter effect. The machine guns had a lot of complaints. Despite the fact that the tanks were armed already modern at that time MG-34, their unsuccessful fastening and nutrition from shops caused constant delays in shooting. In the future, machine guns were translated into ribbon food. Tanks with 75-mm cannons were celebrated as the most effective enemy in shooting. Captured French noted that one of the greatest problems with the defeat of German tanks was their high mobility. Also explicitly manifested a weak booking of German tanks and the insufficient effect of their guns along the tanks of the enemy. Even before the French campaign it became clear that the tanks need to strengthen the reservation and weapons, however, the reinforced cars fell into parts already at the end of the campaign.
In a new major campaign, which began in the summer of 41st years in the East, German tank divisions again performed in a strongly modified form. First, due to an increase in the number of tank divisions, the number of regiments in them decreased from two to one (each division gave the second regiment to form a new division). Now the norm for the division on the German tanks was to have one regiment consisting of two battalions, each three companies (one average). Some divisions (as the 4th and 10th) had not three in the battalion, and four companies (one average). Divisions, equipped with Czech tanks, retained their three-block structure, three companies in the battalion (or four companies, as in the 8th TD).
The 6th Tank Division had a PZ.35 (T) tank as the main
The composition of the mouth also underwent changes, moreover, significant. For a start, the mouth took place (in some places they still remained, but it is important to understand that the adoption of new states does not indicate the automatic change in the state of the division). Twosses were now concentrated in the "easy" rotting of the company and in the reconnaissance platforms of the battalion and shelf. The staff of the easy company now numbered three platforms of five triples + two three in the platoon of control + five bobbies in a lightweight platoon. TOTAL 17 Troots and five twists. In the middle company, it was supposed to have three companies of four four + two fours in a platoon of control + five bobbies in a lightweight platoon. Total 14 fours and five twists. True Division had a long time had 10 fours in the company (there was no third platoon). The staff of the battalion meant the presence of a staff company from two commander tanks on the basis of a triple, one triple, and a reconnaissance "light" platoon of five bodies. The staff of the regiment included the platoon of control and the "light" platoon of the same composition (unless the radio equipment of the commander machines could differ).
The battalion on staff was supposed to have 20 bodies, 35 Troots, 10 - 14 fours and two commander tank (plus several spare tanks). If the battalion was four-way, then the tanks were more: 25 bodies, 52 Troika, 10 - 14 fours and two commander tanks. The regiment of two battalions numbered 45 bodies, 71 Troika, 20 - 28 fours and six commander tanks if three-minute battalions, or 55 bodies, 105 triples, 20 - 28 fours and six commander tanks if four-fold battalions. A total of 142 to 194 tanks. In reality, some tanks were undecked (usually four, no more than 10 in the company), some kind of bust (commander tanks, for example).
The tanks themselves, of course, also underwent changes. The units have practically disappeared, many twins had reinforced to 30 - 35 mm winding armor, the top three had 50 mm or 30 + 30 mm winding armor and 50 mm guns, four also had shielded or reinforced foreheads of about the same thickness. Shard shells of 50-mm guns were stronger than for 37 mm, which can already talk about armor-piercing. On the other hand, light tanks (pz.II) are still present in linear tank mouth. It is also important to note that in many divisions old pz.iii with a 37-mm gun remained still preserved, where 15, where 30, and where and 99 pieces, as in the 18th TD. Another six divisions were equipped instead of German Pz.III Czech tanks (6th, 7th, 8th, 12th, 19th and 20th). In a well-equipped 1st TD, there were 43 twos, 71 troika (all with 50-mm guns), 20 fours and 11 commander tanks. In the 10th tank, having four-rod battalions, there were 45 twars, 105 triples (all 50-mm), 20 fours and 12 commander tanks.
In the middle tank company, Pz.IV tanks were held (in the foreground) and pz.ii
Thus, we see that the Germans, creating initially very large tank units, almost ninebattal, consisting of lightweight tanks, reduced the eastern campaign the number of tank parts in the division to two to three battalions. Machine-gun light tanks were gradually replaced with light tanks with 20-mm cannons, and more powerful 37 mm tanks (later than 50-mm) were at first there were certain "gain tanks". Then these machines began to replace light tanks already in the platforms of light tank mouth, outstanding light cars only in the interlocks of regiments and battalions, and in the rotators - only in a slight platoon. Tanks with 75-mm cannons from the very beginning were concentrated in the "her" company, first, together with 37 mm tanks, and then independently (although in the "medium" tank company, too, "Easy" platoon on two).
Significant changes in the tank shelves occurred in the summer of 1942. First divisions intended for the summer offensive in the southern direction, received a third tank battalion. The next thing was that by the end of the summer, two finally left the tank mouth. The number of bobs in the unwound battalions and regiments during this was increased from five to seven. The real number of fours in battalions decreased, and now it's not everywhere even 10 fours in the battalion. The new composition of the division would have to count 28 bodies, 105 triples and 30s - 42 four. But reality was very worse, mainly in relation to the fours, and only two divisions had more than 30 such machines (32 in the 24th TD and 33 in the 3rd TD). In the rest of the divisions at the beginning of the onset of the fourth, there was a noncomplex. For example, in the 9th TD there was 21 four, in the 11th 13, in the 14th 24, and in the 16th - 27.
Divisions participating in the southern direction have received not only additional battalions, but also a priority equipment with new machines. Massively, new pz.III with a long-range 50-mm gun were presented, although they were only a major majority in the 9th and 11th divisions. Four with a long-life cannon were yet a big rarity, even the "southern" divisions received no more than 12 such machines, and even it was not all of them - in the 23rd division there were 10, and in the 14th - total 4. The same time of the division from other sites remained mainly with old tanks, additionally obtained Czech Pz.38 from the divisions that went to re-form. Of course, gradually in the division came replenished with new tanks, and the old cars were replaced. At the end of 1942, re-ordered divisions who had two battalions of the four-frame composition began to enter the Eastern Front. According to the state, the tank regiment of such a division had 21 two, 105 triples and 20 - 28 fours. Part of the triple had a short-groomed 75-mm gun.
I must say that the first two years of war German tank workers were in some shock from the power of Soviet tanks. Of course, we are not talking about all these nonsense with quotes of German generals about the best tank in the world. But in the reports of tank and anti-tank units, the entire 42nd year and the beginning of the 43rd Germans are almost unanimous. In their opinion, the Soviet tanks exceed them on security and firepower, and the fight against them in some cases is a big problem. Among frequent problems - weakness of the long-term 50-mm gun against T-34 and square meters. According to the Germans, this instrument is effective only with a distance of 400-500 m and only in board and the T-34 tower, and in the sq - from 400 m to the board and from 200 m in the forehead with a subcalibered projectile. But in the summer of the 42nd year, there were problems with podcaliber shells for a tank 50mm tools - after the shot of the sleeve was stuck in the treasury, and it was possible to knock her out only outside the tank. There were no complaints and 75-mm cumulative shells: at a distance more than 500 m, they became hard to get, and in tanks with thick booking (sq, Matilda) they worked at the limit of opportunities. There are cases when eight cumulative shells for each took for the defeat of two kv tanks. This was especially aggravated by the High Martial Spirit of Soviet Tankists, which is directly indicated in some German reports - to make the tank "silence" accounted for once at once to shoot an already affected target. There were problems with 75-mm cannons. Available in tank divisions Self-propelled PTO Mardard could not fully deal with the Soviet tanks, since our tanks often conducted a shooting from a distance of more than 1000 m, and 75-mm gun on this distance affects them badly. At the same time, if Mardende will try to shoot with T-34 or KV at this distance in the hope of hitting, he will earlier will be amazed by retaliatory fire. It is especially worth noting that long-term 75-mm guns and armor-piercing shells to them during this period was relatively few, which was reflected in the frequency of tanks. Tanks T-34 In most cases (50 - 60%) hit 50-mm guns, the armor-piercing shell of 75-mm guns is responsible for 10 - 12% of the lesions of tanks up to the end of the winter campaign 1942 - 1943. The rest are cumulative and podkalibery shells, with Some participation of 88-mm and 105-mm guns. At the same time, on the tanks during this period, 45 - 54% of non-acting lesions (hits that dislike by armor) are observed. Yes, the Germans coped with our tanks, and they were not unguarded, but every time, instead of just shooting in response, the Germans had to be wise, to waste time, reduce the distance or depart, and sometimes carry additional losses. We had in the tank shelf in the amount of 4 - 12, and even 20 fours with a long-life weapon were not enough.
Not all long-life fours came to the Eastern Front in 1942, part of the cars went to Africa. 30 mm The screen on the frontal armor of the case also did not immediately become massive (in the photo it is absent)
There were problems with overcoming anti-tank defense. This was especially celebrated at the turn of 1942-43. And in the spring of 1943. The Germans celebrate the mass of Soviet anti-tank defense, a large number of guns, the growth of organizational skills and efficiency. The Soviet Union gradually restored the power of his army, equipped part of anti-tank artillery and ammunition. Named Germans and anti-tank guns. The commander of divisions in their reports noted that the mass hit by the tanks itself is not enough to break through the defense. If earlier it was possible to crush the defense, to overstat it, suppress fire and break through, now, with an increase in the number and effectiveness of anti-tank guns, tanks are particularly difficult to help infantry and artillery. The attack of tanks should occur under the cover of artillery fire, which should suppress the defense literally until the tanks burst into position. At the same time, tanks are required on one side the big fire power so that they can quickly suppress the position of anti-tank players with fire, and on the other - the accompaniment artillery in the form of self-propelled haubs, since when conducting maneuverable actions, covers and bypass, towing artillery does not sleep for tanks.
That is, the Germans noted that they lack firepower. More tanks are required with 75-mm long-term guns to confront a huge number of Soviet tanks, an increase in the firepower of tanks in non-terrain purposes is required and adding additional support tools, quite movable and protected for action together with tanks. This wonderfully coincided with the changes that occurred in the spring of 1943 in organizing tank units.
Troika (pz.III) with a long-term 50-mm gun experienced noticeable difficulties in the fight against Soviet tanks
From the mid-30s before the early 1943th German troops were held a big way. Developed the correct concepts of application and "dying" the states of the units. "Temporary" tanks were displaced from tank mouth to intelligence units, first a road level, and then battalion. The role of the main firmly occupied pz.III tanks, which received 50mm guns and enhanced frontal armor. However, the insufficient power of weapons of the main tanks forced to have special "support tanks" in the form of Pz.IV with a 75-mm gun. First, as a tank to combat unarround targets, and then as a strengthening against armored goals. In itself, the situation when full-grade armed tanks in the division literally 20 - 30 pieces is literally, and at the same time closely produced by the mass, but a weaker tank very different in the design was a serious disadvantage. Especially a great influence on the Germans provided a campaign in the East, where they were not enough that they had to meet well-protected and armed tanks, and the industry of the Soviet Union could build these tanks in large quantities, and the command is to solvely massage and apply. The high martial spirit of Soviet tank workers complicated the fight against them.
So far, the Germans managed to solve their tasks on the battlefield anyway. High preparation of tankers and officers, reliable equipment, communications, intelligence and interaction of labor of troops often rescued. But collisions with Soviet tanks once changed into heavy battles, drowned losses. The Soviet anti-tank defense, which was managed to saturate the tools and to supply ammunition, also showed their teeth, also from the ashes. It's time to change something ...
Author: Vitaly ornich.
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Otto Bismarck (1815-1898) - founder and first Chancellor of the German Empire (1871-1918). Sly and far-sighted politicians managed to unite dozens of German states and create a strong power of Europe.
Conservative by birth
Bismarck came from the Environment of Juncture. Junkers were called major landowners of Prussia - one of the largest German states of the XIX century. Especially strong landowners were in the east of the country. Today on these lands is the Kaliningrad region of the Russian Federation.
Prussia as part of the German Empire of 1871
Bismarck was born in 1815 in the family of small nobles in the town of Schönhausen in 70 km west of Berlin. The generic castle of his family was demolished by the GDR authorities in 1958. Only one wagon survived, where today is the Bismarck Museum.
Modern Bismarck Museum in Schönhausen. Photo: Wikimedia.
Interestingly, the future "Iron Chancellor" was born on April 1 - on the day of laughter. Seven years before him, Nikolai Gogol was born on the same day. "I was destined to become a diplomat itself: I was born on April 1st," Bismarck says in the future.
His upbringing was imbued with the spirit of conservatism. He grew up in respect of the German traditions, Lutheran religion, Prussian statehood and militarism. The young man came to study in the gymnasium in Berlin, and then to the University in Gottingen. As a typical representative of "Golden Youth", he spent time mainly on the gulyans, and not to study.
Bismarck in youth. Photo: Wikimedia.
The special tradition of German student was duels on the swords. Young Bismarck went to a duel more than 40 times. Once he almost broke up with life - since his cheek was forever left the scar.
Parish in politics
After graduating from studying, the young man tried himself in civil and military services, after which she became a landowner - he moved to Pomerania to manage family estates. In 1847, he married the first and last time. His chosen was the aristocrat of Johann von Puttkmer. Her he will survive for eight years.
Bismarck and his wife. Photo: Wikimedia.
The arrival of Bismarck into politics coincided with the revolutionary 1848 year. Then the folk riots and civil wars broke out throughout Europe. In France, Austria, Italy walked "Spring Peoples".
She has not passed Germany. In German states, popular masses, liberal intelligentsia and studentism rose. It seemed the country in a step from the association, the celebration of the Constitution and Liberalism.
However, this did not happen. The conservative reaction was defeated, the Yarym apologist of which was Otto Bismarck. Even the Prussian king criticized him for excessive conservatism. Liberal politicians and media and ridiculed this convinced reactioner at all.
Ambassador to Russia
In 1859-1862, Bismarck was the Ambassador of Prussia in the Russian Empire. He lived in St. Petersburg and tightly communicated with Russian diplomats, first of all with the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Vice-Chancellor Alexander Gorchakov, Lyceum friend Pushkin.
Bismarck during the years of the diplomatic service. Photo: Wikimedia.
Bismarck learned Russian and even translated to the German novel "Noble Nest" Ivan Turgenev. According to biographers, the knowledge of the Russian language helped the Germans and politics and to build the right line of relations between Berlin with St. Petersburg.
In 1862, the Prussian King of Friedrich Wilhelm IV died, his place was taken by the former regent Wilhelm I. Bismarck was transferred to the Ambassador to Paris. Not wanting spiritually parting with Russia, in the capital of France, he became interested in the wife of the Russian ambassador, the 22-year-old princess Orlova.
Association "Iron and Blood"
From the very beginning of the political career, Bismarck advocated the union of Germany under the beginning of Prussia with the capital in Berlin. This path was called Malogerman, as he did not mean the inclusion of Austria-Hungary and Austrian Germans to the new state.
Distribution of German in Europe in 1910. The map shows that many Germans turned out to be outside the borders of the Bismarck Empire
In contrast, he was considered the Great Path - an association under the auspices of Austria-Hungary with the capital in Vienna. In this case, all the Germans would fall into the new state, but together with them there are also Hungarians, Czechs, Italians and Slavs, which Gabsburg ruled.
The defeat of the revolution of 1848 with its ideas of association taught Bismarck that the goals in politics are achieved only by coarse force and determination. He put forward the slogan of the union of Germany "Iron and Blood", that is, through war. The Bismarck method is also called "real policies" (Realpolitik), that is, the primacy of strength and national interests above the ideals of the world and international agreements.
Bismarck in military uniform. Photo: Wikimedia.
The new King of Prussia Wilhelm I did not hold Bismarck in Paris for a long time. A year later, he instructed him to head the Prussian government. Becoming Chancellor in 1862, Bismarck began to develop the Prussian army (already one of the strongest in Europe).
German headquarters. Left-to-right: Blumetal, hereditary prince Friedrich, Verdi du Verna, Wilhelm I, Moltke, Ron, Bismarck
Already in 1864, he initiates the war with Denmark for the border lands of Schlesvail and Holstein. In 1866, a victorious war with Austria for the Mediterranean land should be followed. According to her results, Bismarck creates the Severogoerman Union - a preifune of the future one Germany.
In 1870-1871 The triumph of Bismarck is a victory over France. German troops come in Paris and there they proclaim the German Empire. The century-old dream of the Germans on the union and victory over the sworn enemy comes true.
The solemn ceremony of the proclamation of Wilhelm I by the German emperor in Versaille. In the center (in white uniform) shows O. Bismarck. Anton von Verner
At the head of the empire
Becoming the Chancellor of the German Empire, Bismarck stopped in the grip wars and 20 years led the most powerful power of Europe along the path of the world. He concluded a system of unions with Austria-Hungary and Russia, secretion of Germany from the East. In the West, he posted France with great contribution, attached to Rihi Alsace and Lorraine and pressed to Paris economically.
Bismarck pounds the emperors of Russia, Austria and Germany. English caricature
Inside the country, Bismarck conducted a policy of unification: the empire from a variety of former independent states had to be made uniform. The Prussian traditions of education, upbringing were planted everywhere. The Catholic religion of the southern German lands was suppressed, Protestantism was rampant.
An ardent conservative Bismarck premeditated the danger of socialism. He forbade the Social Democratic Party in Germany, but at the same time led a skillful policy regarding the working class. On his initiative, in the German Empire, one of the first in the world was introduced pensions, social insurance, vacation system, and so on.
Chancellor fell into disfavor after the change of the monarch. In 1888, Wilhelm II came to power - a young and ambitious Yunets, who eased greatness. He quickly dismissed the old chancellor from the post and began to lead an adventurous policy that led in the end to the First World War and the collapse of the German Empire.
Bismarck after resignation. Photo: Wikimedia.
Bismarck after the resignation retired to the generic estate. Despite the sunset of the career, he remained in the minds and hearts of the Germans by the performer of their main dream - associations in a single state. Along the country, he was erected by monuments and towers - a special kind of honors. A total of more than 400 "Besmark Tasch" were built, several of them can be seen today in the Kaliningrad region.
Quotes Real and fictional
Bismarck was remembered by his ignorant statements, the most famous of which - "Politics is the art of a possible" (Die Politik Ist Die Lehre Vom Möglichen).
Bismarck in military uniform. Photo: Wikimedia.
About Russia he expressed contradictory. In one of the letters, he wrote: "Even the most prosperous outcome of the war will never lead to the collapse of Russia, which keeps on millions of believers of Russian Greek denominations. These are the latter, even if they subsequently will be disconnected by international treaties, it will also quickly be again connected to each other, how this path to each other disconnected mercury droplets. This is an indestructible state of the Russian nation, highly with its climate, its spaces and its unpretentiousness. "
On the other hand, it was Bismarck on the Berlin Congress of 1878, when Russia lost many conquests, said: "Never believe the Russians, because the Russians do not even believe themselves."
Bismarck attributed a lot of other quotes of other people: "Never lie, as during the war, after hunting to the elections," "Battle of Gardens won the Prussian school teacher," "Fools say they learn from their own experience, I prefer to learn On the experience of others. "
Victim of reputation
The bismarks dynasty is known from the 13th century. Gradually, the representatives of the kind were able to raise. But directly father Otto von Bismarck was not a very rich landowner. Therefore, the ambitious young man from the depthion had to make a career, counting not to relatives, but solely on their abilities.
Otto Bismarck von Bismark created a new state - a single German empire. But the chancellor's rock error brought them the same created by the power to the catastrophe.
Otto Bismarck. (wikimedia.org)
Bismarck was born in 1815 in the family of Prussian Junkers (nobles). He served on the line of the diplomatic department, showed himself a talented politician of the conservative sense. In 1862 he became the President of Prussia - the actual ruler of the Kingdom. In 1871 he received the title of Reichskanzler of United Germans and held this post before his resignation in 1890.
For almost 30 years of staying in power, Bismarck held three successful wars (with Denmark, Austria and France), "iron and blood" combined fragmented German lands and created a new Great Power - the German Empire. But it's all, so to speak, the external canvas of events. And what price did it sought his goals Otto Bismarck?
The most amazing cynicism is striking in Bismarca, with whom he spokes of big politics. For the sake of achievement of the desired result, it was not beaten by provocation, cunning and frank deception. He so masterfully quarreled his enemies and set the capacanis that they did not always understand why they were trapped.
Putting for Russians
In 1863, when an uprising broke out in Russian Poland, Bismarck immediately expressed support for the king Alexander II. And noble proposed a draft convention, which was permitted by Russian troops to pursue Polish rebels even on the territory of Prussia. Alexander II and Chancellor Gorchakov "swallowed out". The Convention was signed.
And then it happened what Bismarck counted. France and England immediately stated that since the Polish rebels became the "subject of interstate agreements" by virtue of the Russian-Prussian Convention, the Paris and London will take part in them. And immediately advanced ultimatum: amnesty, constitution, wide autonomy for Poland.
German headquarters in Versailles; Bismarck - extreme right. (wikimedia.org)
In Europe, smelled of a big war. The trick with the Convention Bismarck deftly translated the Polish question from the internal affairs of Russia to the international problem. Wars managed to avoid. But Paris, London and St. Petersburg, to the joy of Bismarck, thought deadly.
"War will begin at dawn ..."
If Bismarck managed to deceive Gorchakov, then the Austrian emperor Franz Joseph was altogether was easy. When Bismarck began to prepare a war with Austria, he was very important to appear in the sacrifice in the halo, and not the aggressor. It was necessary to make that Austria itself began to make any hostile steps. Then the war could be explained by the "self-defense". And Bismarck through various unofficial sources, externally in no way associated with the Prussian government, began to send an alarm messaging in Vienna.
Encryption resembled Richard Zorge signals: "Berlin is preparing an attack on Austria," "War is about to start at dawn," "Prussian invasion is preparing" and so on. The nerves of Franz Joseph did not stand - he gave an order of partial mobilization. The concentration of Austrian troops was immediately represented by Bismarck as proof of the aggressive intentions of the Vienna. The war began, and Austria collapsed.
The same method of malicious provocation Bismarck used both France. He did not stop even before the face, that is, the manufacture of a deliberate fake. We are talking about the famous Emskoy deposte of 1870.
"Crowded Maps" Bismarck
It all started with the fact that Bismarck was convicted to the vacant Spanish throne of the Prussian Prince Leopold Gogenzollerne. Emperor Napoleon III made sharply against: France could be between the two powers, united by one dynasty. Napoleon III appealed to the Prussian King Wilhelm I demanding to remove the candidacy of a relative and "give a written promise to no longer athend to the dignity of France."
The last requirement violated all diplomatic decency. Wilhelm I accepted the French ambassador in his residence in Ems and dryly stated that he could not agree with such requirements, but negotiations on this topic will be continued in Berlin. After that, the king sent a message about the bismarck happened to Berlin.
Having received the Message of the King, Bismarck, without blinking the eye, immediately took a pencil and struck out the words that "negotiations will continue in Berlin." So the King's telegram received the appearance of a categorical and irrevocable refusal to the French. In this falsified form, the Emskie Deposits appeared in all newspapers. France immediately announced the war of Prussia. But it was just what the Bismarck needs.
Gorchakov climbs in a loop
As a smart cynic, Bismarck was completely indifferent to the external decorum: spectacular (but meaningless in essence) political acts did not mean anything in his eyes. In 1870, his Russian colleague - already mentioned Chancellor Gorchakov - conceived to abolish the shameful articles of the Paris world of 1856, which prohibited Russia to have a fleet on the Black Sea. And Gorchakov wanted to issue this by the "loud" - by the decision of the International Congress of the Great Powers.
Bismarck saw that Gorchakov was again climbing his head in a loop. "I would just start building ships and waited for the moment when I was asked about me," Bismarck responded to the initiative of the Russian Chancellor.